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Jun 14, 2022 Jeffrey Kotyk
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The Chinese monk Yixing 一行 (673–727) is unique in being an early architect of the Mantrayāna tradition (Esoteric Buddhism) in East Asia in addition to featuring as a significant individual within the history of astronomy and calendrical science in China. His legacy in the Buddhist world is well known, but the enduring appreciation of his scientific work in later centuries is less understood. The present paper will document the achievements of Yixing’s work in astronomy while also...
Topics: buddhism, astronomy, history of astronomy, yixing, astrology, china
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This study examines the use, adaptation, modification and omission of astronomical and calendrical elements in early Japanese Mikkyō (ninth century) in large part from the perspective of exact sciences. Shingon and Tendai inherited a Sinicized system of Indian astrology from their respective beginnings, but the significance of this fact in the study of Japanese religions is underrecognized despite the reality that astrology was both studied and technically required in Mikkyō. This study will...
Topics: buddhism, mikkyo, japan, astrology, astronomy, vajrayana, tantra, esoteric buddhism, 密教
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. 2020. “On the Identification and Use of ānxī-xiāng 安息香/安悉香/安西香 in Medieval China.” In Quaderni di Studi Indo-Mediterranei XII: FOR THE CENTENNIAL OF BERTHOLD LAUFER’S CLASSIC SINO-IRANICA (1919), Sino-Iranica’s Centennial, Between East and West, Exchanges of Material and Ideational Culture, edited by Ephraim Nissan, 519–526. Milano: Mimemsis Edizioni.
Topics: buddhism, daoism, incense, aromatics, laufer, iran, china
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. 2021. “Milk, Yogurt and Butter in Medieval East Asia: Dairy Products from China to Japan in Medicine and Buddhism.”  Religions  12, no. 5/302: 1–11.
Topics: buddhism, dairy, materia medica, daoism, yogurt, china, japan
Kotyk, Jeffrey. 2019. “Chinese and English Horoscopy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: The Astrological Doctrines of the Twelve Houses and Lot of Fortune in Xingxue dacheng 星學大成 by Wan Minying 萬民英 (1521–1603) and Christian Astrology by William Lilly (1602–1681).” Brill’s International Journal of Divination & Prognostication 1: 3–35.
Topics: astrology, william lilly, astronomy, china, england
Kotyk, Jeffrey. 2020. “Chinese State and Buddhist Historical Sources on Xuanzang: Historicity and the Daci’en si sanzang fashi zhuan 大慈恩寺三藏法師傳.” In From Chang’an to Nālandā: The Life and Legacy of the Chinese Buddhist Monk Xuanzang (602?–664) , eds. Shi Ciguang, Chen Jinhua, Ji Yu and Shi Xingding, 270–310. Singapore: World Scholastic Publishers. Republication of 2019 article in T’oung Pao.
Topics: buddhism, xuanzang, china, yogacara, chinese buddhism
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Apr 20, 2019 Jeffrey Kotyk
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. “Astrological Determinism in Indian Buddhism.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 41 (2018): 145–167. This study surveys the presence of astrological determinism (i.e., the belief that celestial bodies influence or signal fated developments) within Indian Buddhism, from early literature until late-Tantra, in which passive belief in astrology is more often expected than rejected. It is argued that a tradition of ‘Buddhist astrology’ did, in...
Topics: buddhism, astrology, astronomy, Indology, Sinology, history of astrology, India, China, jyotish
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Apr 9, 2019 Jeffrey Kotyk
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. "Research Note on Brahmanical Deities in Mikkyō Astrological Art."  Journal of Asian Humanities at Kyushu University  4 (2019): 101–108.
Topics: Buddhism, Astrology, Astral Magic, Shingon, Tendai, Japan
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Apr 9, 2019 Jeffrey Kotyk
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. "Research Note on Brahmanical Deities in Mikkyō Astrological Art." Journal of Asian Humanities at Kyushu University 4 (2019): 101–108.
Topics: buddhism, astrology, mikkyo, mandala, japanese buddhism, shingon, tendai
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"Issues Surrounding the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya : Doubts Concerning Jan Nattier’s Theory of a Composition by Xuanzang." Translation by Jeffrey Kotyk of the following article in Japanese: Ishii Kōsei 石井公成. “‘ Hannya shingyō ’ wo meguru shomondai – Jan Nattier no Genjō sōsaku-setsu wo utagau” 『般若心経』をめぐる諸問題: ジャン・ナティエ氏の玄奘創作説を疑う. Indogaku Bukkyōgaku kenkyū 印度學佛教學研究 64, no. 1 (2015):...
Topics: Buddhism, Heart Sutra, Sutra, Nattier
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Sep 30, 2018 Jeffrey Kotyk
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This study explores the introduction and development of foreign systems of astrology in medieval China (Tang to Ming periods), in particular the practice of horoscopy, and how such models were implemented within a Chinese astronomical framework. It is argued that the basic character of such horoscopy was in large part Dorothean, rather than Ptolemaic. It is furthermore demonstrated that Chinese horoscopy was as much an heir to Persian systems of horoscopy as was the Islamicate, a point that has...
Topics: buddhism, astrology, sinology, history, astronomy, history of astrology
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Jul 30, 2018 Jeffrey Kotyk
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“Yixing and Pseudo-Yixing a Misunderstood Astronomer-Monk.” Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies 31 (2018) 1–37. The present study argues that we must differentiate between the historical Yixing (673–727), an eminent Chinese monk, and the later legend that developed: a pseudo-Yixing, to whom various texts incorporating elements of astral magic and astrology were attributed. Scholars have not adequately differentiated between the historical Yixing and the later fictionalized figure,...
Topics: buddhism, yixing, astrology, astronomy, sinology, history
Miscellaneous Contributed Journals and Academic Newsletters
Jun 12, 2018 Jeffrey Kotyk
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. "Japanese Buddhist Astrology and Astral Magic: Mikkyō and Sukuyōdō." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 45, no. 1 (2018): 37-86. This study investigates the sources of Japanese Buddhist astrology and astral magic while also examining their later developments, arguing that a significant amount of such arts actually originated in the Near East. Two types of Buddhist astrology are identified: “Mikkyō Astrology,” which was primarily used to determine auspicious...
Topics: Buddhism, Astrology, Astral Magic, Japanese Buddhism, Japan
Kotyk, Jeffrey. “Astrological Iconography of Planetary Deities in Tang China: Near Eastern and Indian Icons in Chinese Buddhism.” Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies 30 (2017): 33-88.
Topics: buddhism, china, iconography, astrology
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Apr 16, 2018 Jeffrey Kotyk
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Kotyk, Jeffrey. "Iranian Elements in Late-Tang Buddhist Astrology." Asia Major 30, no. 1 (2017): 25-58.
Topics: astrology, buddhism, iran
Kotyk, Jeffrey. "Early Tantric Hemerology in Chinese Buddhism: Timing of Rituals According to Śubhakarasiṃha and Yixing." Canadian Journal of Buddhist Studies 13 (2018): 1-29.
Topics: buddhism, astrology, hemerology, nalanda, yixing, subhakarasimha, vajrayana
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PhD Dissertation (Leiden University, September 7th, 2017) by Jeffrey Kotyk . This study surveys the introduction of astrology into East Asia with a primary focus on the Buddhist experience of Indian and Iranian astrology during the eighth and ninth centuries. It is argued that prior to the introduction of Esoteric Buddhism during the 8th century, the Chinese sangha had no pressing need to observe astrology. However, following the rising popularity of Tantric rituals, which require proper...
Topics: buddhism, astrology, daoism, astronomy, religion